It is one of the 10 most frequent cancers in human males

It is one of the 10 most frequent cancers in human males PND-1186 nmr worldwide, with about two thirds of all cases occurring in developing countries [18]. The most

common type of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. At present, the management of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) includes combinations of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy [19]. Despite improvements in these therapies, the 5-year survival rate has not improved significantly and remains at about 50% [20]. In clinical practice, treatment planning and prognosis for patients with OSCC are mainly based on the TNM classification. TNM classification provides significant AZD0530 diagnostic information concerning the tumor, but does not give the clinician sufficient therapeutic biological information, such as the metastatic potential or the sensitivity or resistance of the tumor to radiotherapy and chemotherapy [21]. There is an urgent need for diagnostic methods for distinguishing high-risk patients from other patients in order that optimal managements can be applied. As such, some of the urgent priorities

in this field are the need to identify and elucidate novel genes or pathways that may choreograph this disease. In the present study, by using the miRNA microarray technique, we have measured the relative expression of microRNAs in 7,12-dimethyl-benz- [a]-anthrance (DMBA)-induced OSCC in Syrian hamster. We hope that it can contribute

to early diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy. Tanespimycin Methods Animals The construction of the animal model was conducted at West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan why University. Twenty-four adult male (150 to 250 g) Syrian hamsters (6 weeks old; sydw, Sichuan, China) were randomly divided into two experimental groups (Group A and B) and one control group (Group C) (n = 8 for each group). After one week of acclimatization, both cheek pouches of each animal in the experimental groups were treated with 5% DMBA (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA) in acetone. DMBA was applied tri-weekly (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) with a paintbrush. The animals from group A received carcinogen for about 12 weeks. Group B received carcinogen about 12 weeks, with an additional 6-week period of observation. Group C received no treatment and served as blank control. The animal groupings and protocol of carcinogen application are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Protocol and effect of DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis on cheek pouch of syrian hamster Group Animals Treatment protocol Histological type Mean diameter of tumors       NM PP CIS SCC (mm) Experiment Group               A 7 5%DMBA-12 week-killed 0 1 1 5 5 ± 1.69 B 7 5%DMBA-18 week-killed 0 0 0 7 8.7 ± 2.

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