Mature biofilms contained living bacteria and were structurally,

Mature biofilms contained living bacteria and were structurally, chemically, and physiologically heterogeneous. These remarkable structures

are formed in the laboratory without unusual culturing conditions (i.e., beyond the choice of medium, temperature, and incubating conditions) and the C188-9 organism does not appear to lose the ability to form biofilm, even after a six or more subcultures. The principal architectural elements observed by electron microscopy may be useful morphological identifiers for classifying PARP inhibitor review bacterial biofilms in vivo. The complexity and reproducibility of the structural motifs in the observed biofilms suggest that they are the result of organized assembly and not a result of ad hoc associations. These results suggest possible ecological advantages of the P. fluorescens EvS4-B1 strain.

Cooperation among microbes currently is generating much interest within both the evolutionary and microbial communities [47]. The matrix of cross-linked polymers observed in the studied biofilms is being produced in copious amounts with high associated costs to the bacteria, while causing large separations between cells. These are relevant and impressive observations, especially within the context of recent theoretical studies [48], which have demonstrated that polymer production in biofilms can be a competitive trait allowing EPS-producing bacteria to occupy more favorable locations in the biofilm while “”suffocating”" strains of non-polymer producers. Conversely, biofilm EPS may provide a protective microenvironment fostering mutualism, such selleck chemicals llc as encountered among endophytic bacteria that colonize intercellular spaces in various interior plant tissues and in the rhizosphere without causing

damage. It has been suggested that biofilms produced by facultative endophytes may be involved in protecting plants from vascular pathogens and may have applications in pesticide phytoremediation [49]. Begun et al. showed that EPS from staphylococcal biofilms protected the enclosed bacterial communities against the immune defenses of the Dehydratase model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans [50]. Methods Bacterial isolation and culture conditions The bacteria used in this study were isolated from soil (T = 31.6°C) directly adjacent to a tar seep at a location on Sulphur Mountain (Ventura County, CA). The soil isolate EvS4-B1 was obtained following enrichment on solid media containing 10 μM thioanisole using the minimum number of passes required to obtain a pure culture. Working cultures of the EvS4-B1 isolate were maintained as slants on complex media inoculated directly from cryostocks. Slants were discarded two weeks following inoculation. Strain EvS4-B1 was cultured using a freshwater medium lacking essential vitamins and minerals (10 mL, see below) in 20 mm culture tubes. Cultures were maintained at 30°C and were shaken at 250 rev min-1. The same growth medium was used throughout.

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