The classification of IMPDHs was further substantiated with IMPDH

The classification of IMPDHs was further substantiated with IMPDH sequences obtained from more Penicillium species as described in the following. P. brevicompactum and P. chrysogenum belong to Penicillium subgenus Penicillium and are closely related [16]. To investigate if the presence of two IMPDHs is a general phenomenon in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium, we created degenerate

primers designed to amplify the genes coding for the two types of IMPDHs, IMPDH-A and IMPDH-B. These primers were used to amplify IMPDH-encoding genes by using gDNA from four additional Penicillium strains as PCR templates (Table 1). Interestingly, despite the fact that strains tested included both MPA producers and non-producers, we found two IMPDH copies in all four strains (Table 1). We then performed a cladistic analysis including these new genes, which showed that mpaF and its orthologs clearly form a separate group (Figure 3). Table 1 Strains and sequences Taxon name IBT number Other collection numbers MPA prod.* Sequences (Accession #)         IMPDH-A IMPDH-B β-tubulin P. bialowiezense 21578 CBS 112477 ++ JF302658 JF302662 JF302653 P.

brevicompactum 23078 – ++ JF302657 HQ731031+ JF302652 P. carneum 3472 CBS 466.95 ++ JF302656 JF302660 selleckchem JF302650 P. chrysogenum 5857 NRRL 1951 – XM_002562313 XM_002559146 XM_002559715 P. paneum 21729 CBS 112296 – JF302654 JF302661 JF302651 P. from roqueforti 16406 NRRL 849 + JF302655 JF302659 JF302649 *) MPA production on CYA media. FK228 purchase – means no production, + medium and ++ high production (Frisvad and Samson, 2004)). +) The MPA gene cluster sequence from P. brevicompactum which contains the gene encoding MpaFp.

Figure 3 Identification and cladistic analysis of IMPDH-A and IMPDH-B coding genes from different fungi. A) Gene organization of imdA from A. nidulans and mpaF (coding for IMPDH-B in P. brevicompactum). The sequence region used for creating the cladograms in B is marked by a square. Introns are marked by a thin open line. B) and C): Rooted cladograms based on, B) IMPDH cDNA sequences (651-654 bp); and C) β-tubulin cDNA sequences (981 bp) from species from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium and from five fungi with sequenced genomes including the outgroup. P.: Penicillium and A.: Aspergillus. Bootstrap values (expressed as percentage of 1000 replications) are shown at the branch points. MPA production is indicated by “”+”" or “”-”". The clades with Penicillium subgenus Penicillium genes are boxed; red, IMPDH-A; blue, IMPDH-B; green, β-tubulin. Coccidioides immitis has been used as outgroup in both analyses B and C. Scale bars correspond to 0.130 and 0.060 nucleotide changes per site in cladograms B) and C) respectively.

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