Results revealed that only one candidate gene – MAN2C1 – showed a

Results revealed that only one candidate gene – MAN2C1 – showed a significant methylation x PTE interaction, such that those with both higher MAN2C1 methylation and greater exposure to PTEs showed a marked increase in risk of lifetime PTSD (OR 4.35, 95% CI: 1.07, 17.77, p = 0.04). These results indicate that MAN2C1 methylation levels modify cumulative traumatic burden on risk of PTSD, and suggest that both gene expression and epigenetic changes at specific loci are associated with this disorder.”
“Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) is used for industrial applications such as catalysts

and pigments. In the classical form, namely the fine particle, Cr2O3 is insoluble

and chemically this website stable. It is classified as a low-toxicity chromium compound. Recently, industrial LB-100 order application of nanoparticles (a new form composed of small particles with a diameter of <= 100 nm, in at least one dimension) has been increasing. Cellular effects induced by Cr2O3 nanoparticles are not known. To shed light upon this, the release of soluble chromium from Cr2O3 nano- and fine-particles in culture medium was compared. Fine Cr2O3 particles were insoluble in the culture medium; on the contrary, Cr2O3 nanoparticles released soluble hexavalent chromium into the culture medium. Cr2O3 nanoparticles showed severe cytotoxicity. The effect of Cr2O3 nanoparticles on cell viability was higher than that of fine particles. Cr2O3 nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity equal to that of hexavalent chromium (K2Cr2O7). Human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells showed an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level

and activation of antioxidant defense systems on exposure to Cr2O3 nanoparticles. Exposure of Cr2O3 nanoparticles led buy Bromosporine to caspase-3 activation, showing that the decrease in cell viability by exposure to Cr2O3 nanoparticles was caused by apoptosis. Cellular responses were stronger in the Cr2O3 nanoparticles-exposed cells than in fine Cr2O3- and CrCl3-exposed cells. Cellular uptake of Cr2O3 particles were observed in nano- and fine-particles. The cellular influence of the extracellular soluble trivalent chromium was lower than that of Cr2O3 nanoparticles. Cr2O3 nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity by hexavalent chromium released at outside and inside of cells. The cellular influences of Cr2O3 nanoparticles matched those of hexavalent chromium. In conclusion, Cr2O3 nanoparticles have a high cytotoxic potential. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28: 61-75,2013.

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