Such a process seems to involve the whole thyroid gland Since a

Such a process seems to involve the whole thyroid gland. Since a constitutively active STAT3, associated to cytoplasmic

accumulation of p53, has been reported to represent a risk factor for tumor development [11], total thyroidectomy may be supported as an adequate therapeutic choice PARP inhibitor in cases where such alterations are detected. References 1. Friguglietti CU, Lin CS, Kulcsar MA: Total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid diseases. Laryngoscope 2003, 113:1820–6.PubMedCrossRef 2. Wei WZ, Morris GP, Kong YC: Anti-tumor immunity and autoimmunity: a balancing act of regulatory T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2004, 53:73–8.PubMedCrossRef 3. Muller-Newen G: The cytokine receptor gp130: faithfully promiscuous. SciSTKE 2003, 201:PE40. 4. Calo V, Migliavacca M, Bazan V, Macaluso M, Buscemi M, Gebbia N, Russo A: STAT proteins: from normal control of cellular events to tumorigenesis. J Cell Physiol 2003, 197:157–68.PubMedCrossRef 5. Lin J, Jin X, Rothman K, Lin HJ, Tang

H, Burke W: Modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activities by p53 tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2002, 62:376–80.PubMed 6. Leu C, Wong F, Chang C, Huang S, Hu C: Interleukin-6 acts as an antiapoptotic factor in human esophageal carcinoma cells through the activation of both STAT3 and mitogenactivated protein kinase pathways. Oncogene 2003, 22:7809–18.PubMedCrossRef 7. Lin J, Tang H, Jin X, Jia G, Hsieh JT: p53 regulates STAT3 phosphorylation and DNA binding activity in human prostate cancer cells expressing constitutively active STAT3. Oncogene 2002, 21:3082–8.PubMedCrossRef 8. Qu L, Huang S, Baltzis buy STI571 D, Rivas-Estilla AM, Pluquet O, Hatzglou M, Koumenis C, Taya Y, Yoshimura A, Koromilas AE: Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces selleck screening library p53 cytoplasmic localization and prevents p53-dependent apoptosis by a pathway involving glycogen synthase

kinase-3beta. Genes Dev 2004, 26:234–9. 9. Casey MB, Lohse CM, Lloyd RV: Distinction between papillary thyroid hyperplasia and papillary thyroid carcinoma by immunohistochemical staining for CK19, galectin-3 and HBME-1. Endocr Pathol 2003, 14:55–60.PubMedCrossRef 10. Royuela M, Ricote M, Parsons MS, Garcia-Tunon I, Paniagua R, de Miguel MP: Immunohistochemical analysis of the IL-6 family of cytokines and their receptors in benign, hyperplastic, and malignany human prosatate. J Pathol 2004, 202:41–49.PubMedCrossRef 11. Bosari S, Viale G, Bossi P, Maggioni M, Coggi G, Murray JJ, Lee AK: Cytoplasmic accumulation of p53 protein: an independent prognostic indicator in find more colorectal adenocarcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994, 86:681–7.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions GA performed thyroid surgery, participated in study design and coordination. LR participated to perform thyroid surgery, participated in the sequence alignment and drafted the manuscript.

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