3 To date, molecular targeted therapy has shown promise for the treatment of advanced HCC,4 but it is unclear how these genetic changes cause the clinical characteristics observed in individual HCC patients.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are often recruited by corepressors or multiprotein transcriptional complexes to gene promoters, whereby they regulate transcription by way of chromatin modification without directly https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Deforolimus.html binding to DNA.5 There are 18 encoded human HDACs, which are classified as: class I (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8), class II (HDAC4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10), class III (SIRT1-7), and class IV (HDAC11) enzymes,6 and evidence indicates that both histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and HDACs are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle regulation.7 In addition, it has been reported that the pathological activity and deregulation of HDACs can lead to several diseases, such as cancer, immunological disturbances, and muscular dystrophy.8 However, despite the involvement of HDACs in the development of cancer, the specific roles fulfilled by individual HDACs in the regulation of cancer development remain unclear. HDAC6 is a member of the class IIb family of HDACs and acts as a cytoplasmic deacetylase that associates with microtubules and deacetylates α-tubulin.9 Microtubule-associated HDAC6 is a critical component of the lysosomal I-BET-762 cost protein degradation
pathway, and it has been recently suggested that HDAC6 plays an important role in the eventual clearance of aggresomes, which implies a functional connection between autophagic signaling and control of the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes associated with the control of autophagy by way of the recruitment of cortactin-dependent, actin-remodeling machinery to ubiquitinated protein aggregates.10 On the other hand, HDAC6 has been shown to be involved in carcinogenic transformation and to modulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers by way of the regulations of several critical cellular functions,11,
12 and accumulating evidence indicates that the expression of HDAC6 is correlated with oncogenic transformation, anchorage-independent proliferation, Branched chain aminotransferase and tumor aggressiveness. Furthermore, it has been shown that the inactivation of HDAC6 by genetic ablation or by specific short small interfering RNA (siRNA) increases resistance to oncogenic transformation and decreases the growth of human breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo.13, 14 Therefore, the up-regulation of HDAC6 in diverse tumors and cell lines suggests that HDAC6 plays an important role in cancer. However, our previous transcriptome analysis on multistep hepatopathogenesis suggested the down-regulation of HDAC6 in overt HCC as compared with noncancerous tissues, and our initial analysis of HDAC6 in human HCC tissues indicated the loss of HDAC6 expression in HCCs.